Prime Minister's Council on TRADE & INDUSTRY

Special Subject Group on
Policy Framework for Private Investment in
Education, Health and Rural Development

Report on
A Policy Framework for Reforms in Education


3. PERSPECTIVES ON EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

3.1 Education Development in Ancient India

In ancient times, India was a great centre for learning. The 500 years from the 4th century AD to the close of the 8th century under the Guptas and Vardhanas was a glorious period in the history of Indian education. It was an age of the Nalanda and Valabhi Universities and the rise of Indian sciences, mathematics and astronomy.

The Nalanda University had 1,500 teachers and thousands of students, maintained by revenues from more than 100 villages. Its fame attracted scholars from all over the world. Its open system covered vedas, logic, grammar, Buddhist and Hindu philosophy, astronomy and medicine. Sadly, today India does not enjoy that glory in the field of education.

3.2 Current State of Education

In 1997, India had an education index of 0.54 (maximum=1) against an average 0.95 enjoyed by countries with high human development. (Exhibit 3.1) The education index is a construct that is a function of gross enrolment in education and adult literacy, and has been brought out by United Nations Development Programme. China is far ahead with an index of 0.78; Sri Lanka has an index of 0.82. Even Swaziland, Botswana and Namibia have much higher indices of 0.76, 0.73 and 0.81.

The primary net enrolment ratio as percent of relevant age group was 77.2 percent. The secondary net enrolment ratio as percent of relevant age group drops alarmingly to 59.7 percent. The adult literacy rate is 54%.

Between 1993 and 1996, India spent 3.4 percent of its GNP on public education, constituting 11.6 percent of total government expenditure. Countries like Canada and Sweden spent 7 percent and 8.3 percent of their GNP on education. Among the relatively less developed countries, Swaziland, Namibia and Botswana spent 7.3 percent, 9.1 percent and 10.4 percent of their GNP on education.

India shows a high gender gap in education. Female adult literacy stands at just 39.4 percent, just 59 percent of the male rate. Female primary net enrolment ratio stands at 71, while female secondary net enrolment ratio drops to 48. Female adult literacy is far higher in countries like Indonesia (79.5 percent), Swaziland (76.3 percent), Namibia (78.5 percent), Gabon (56.8 percent), Zambia (67.5 percent), Malawi (43.4 percent), Rwanda (55.6 percent) and Lesotho (92.5 percent). India's literacy rate in 1997 classified state-wise is given in Exhibit 3.2. Progress of India's literacy rate in the 20th Century is given in Exhibit 3.3

Even after 53 years of independence, we have not been able to achieve the dream of eradicating illiteracy. In 1942, the British Government instituted the Sargent Committee to propose a plan for eradicating illiteracy in India. The committee proposed a plan that would make India 100 % literate in 40 years. Indian nationalists scoffed at the plan stating that India does not have that kind of patience, and wanted quicker results. However, 58 years after that and 53 years after independence, our literacy rate is only 62 %.

It must be noted that there has been considerable progress in the field of education in India. The literacy rate has increased from 18.3% in 1951 to 62% in 1997. The number of primary schools increased from 2.09 lakhs in 1950-51 to 6.1 lakhs in 1998. The enrolment in schools increased from about 240 lakhs in 1950-51 to about 1090 lakhs in 1998. The student enrolment in universities and colleges increased from about 2 lakhs at the time of independence to 56 lakhs in 1998. The details of the number of all types of educational institutions from 1961 to 1998 are given in Table 3.1.

India today spends 3.8% of its GNP on education. India has 46% of its population aged 15 years and above as illiterates. In contrast, China spends only 2.6% of its GNP on education but has only 22% of its population aged 15 years and above as illiterates. About one third of the world’s illiterates are in India. The details of the public expenditure on education by India and other emerging countries as a percentage of their GNP for the year 1996 is presented in Exhibit 3.4.

The total enrolment in general education by level and state for the year 1998 is presented in Table 3.2. The details of the students by level of education and sex is presented in Exhibit 3.5 and the net attendance ratio by sex and broad class group is presented in Exhibit 3.6.

Though significant progress has been made in enrolment, retention is still a major hurdle that India faces. The dropout ratio especially amongst the girls is extremely high. The details of the percentage drop out in different stages of school education are presented in Exhibit 3.7 (boys) and Exhibit 3.8 (girls).

3.3 National Policy on Education

The National Policy on Education (NPE), framed in 1986 and amended in 1992, accords priority to universalisation of elementary education, universal retention of children up to 14 years of age, non-formal education in the educationally backward states and thrust to the National Literacy Mission.

It states that " the investment on education be gradually increased to reach a level of 6% of the National Income as early as possible". In fact, several Government documents dating back to 1969 state this goal. The actual level of investment has remained far short of this target.

The Programme of Action of the NPE 1986 and as revised in 1992 states "Time is of essence, and unless we act now, we stand in the danger of once again missing the opportunity of education reform, so critical not only for the development of our nation, but for our very survival". It also mentions that "it is people’s achievement in the education reconstruction which will make the real difference"

We have not yet succeeded in any meaningful reform and also having society’s involvement in the process.

3.4 Pre-primary Education


Primary education is the building block for developing literacy. However, the transition from home to the school environment poses a significant challenge to children. Moreover, scientific research has found that language skills, intelligence, personality and social behaviour are largely determined by age four or five. The need for a pre primary school was therefore felt to prepare the child mentally, physically and socially for the many years of education to be pursued ahead.

Primary education in India is characterised by two extremes. In rural areas, it is common that children who have studied for as long as six years lack the basic reading and writing skills, while children in urban areas are subjected to extreme pressures to excel in academic skills. The root of this dichotomy lies in pre-primary education system in India. While the pre–primary school in the rural schools rarely stresses on education, children in urban areas attend as much as two to three years of pre-school.

In rural India in 1984, 124 of every thousand children born to illiterate mothers died before age one. In the same rural areas in 1991, about 64 percent of children under three exhibited some level of malnutrition. And of the 101 million Indian children enrolled in primary school in 1991-92, the dropout rate was 47%.

To improve the situation, the Indian government initiated Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) in 1975. ICDS is supported by the World Food Programme, Centre for American Relief Everywhere, UNICEF, the European Union, USAID and the World Bank.

The first and second ICDS projects attempt to combine education with basic services to children, pregnant women and nursing mothers. It is the largest such programme in the world, aimed at seventeen million pre-school children and seven million pregnant and nursing women. The programme is delivered at the village level in four States: Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar and gives priority to the low-income groups.

The two projects work through a network of Anganwadi ("courtyard") centres, each run by an Anganwadi worker, usually selected from the local village. The Anganwadi workers gather between 20 and 40 children in a courtyard for several hours each weekday and provide non-formal pre-school education, supplementary feeding, immunisations, health check ups and medical referral services. They also provide health and nutrition education, parenting education through home visits and maternal and child health referrals. The projects use existing services of diverse governmental departments and of voluntary agencies, but overall administration responsibilities lie with the Department of Women and Child Development within the Ministry of Human Resources Development.

Though the ICDS has now spread to almost all states, most of the Anganwadi centres operate at a minimum level of quality and estimates are that only 12% of India's children are reached by any early childhood assistance.

3.5 Primary Education

Provision of free and compulsory education to all the children until they complete the age of 14 years is a Directive Principle of the Constitution. The stated national goal of education for all has still not been met.

India has steadily raised primary enrolment rates since Independence and today has the world's second largest education system after China, with 1080 lakhs children aged 6-10 attending primary school. Yet, one of its most stubborn development challenges is the fact that about 330 lakhs children of primary school age are still not enrolled in school. In addition, the qualities of teaching and retention power of primary schools are weak, and there are large gaps in access to education, quality of education and learning according to gender, ethnicity and location.

Though the gross enrolment rate in primary schools is about 90%, there are still about 33 lakhs children who are not enrolled in any school and the total number of illiterates in 1997 was about 3000 lakhs. The attendance ratio and survival rate makes the picture even more dismal. India’s primary school survival rate of 62% is also lower than other developing countries such as Brazil (71%), Mexico (84%) and Egypt (98%). This indicates that very few students are reaching the fifth or sixth grade. Dropout rates measured by the Department of Education show that 35% of males and 39% of females dropout before completing primary education. Only 84% of rural habitations have access to a school within a distance of 1 km and only 76% have access to a school within a distance of 3km, though in terms of population, the figures are higher at 95% and 85% respectively. 21000 schools are still single teacher schools. The quality of education imparted leaves much to be desired, with students not being able to read and write even in the fifth grade. This is due to the fact that availability of a school does not mean it has all the required facilities.

A comparison of India with other emerging countries in primary school enrolment is given in Table 3.3. It could be seen from the table that India ranks poorly even amongst the emerging countries. The number of primary schools from 1970 to 1997 is presented in Exhibit 3.9.

India’s public spending on education as a percentage of GNP, for the period 1993-97, was lower than that of Egypt, Kenya, Mexico, Nicaragua, South Africa, Thailand and Tanzania. The spending on primary education as a percentage of total public expenditure in the same period in India was 40 %. Fifteen other emerging nations were compared with India, and India’s percentage spend is the second lowest ahead of Peru. These details are presented in Table 3.4.

A study of China shows that due to a compulsory 6 year and 9 year education system, the enrolment percentage is in the high 90s for the age group 6-11. China, whose literacy rate was less than 20 % in the late 40s has gone up substantially to over 80 % today. China has achieved all this in a matter of 40 to 50 years. It is not difficult for India to outdo China in a shorter time span.

A phased drive called Operation Blackboard has been launched to improve the basic infrastructure of primary education. Till 1989-90 a total of Rs 383 crores had been spent under the scheme.

The education policy provides for opening of residential schools for talented children. These schools are named Navodaya Vidyalayas. These schools are residential, co-educational and primarily for children from rural areas. At least one third seats are reserved for girls. Presently, the overall percentages of SC/ST students admitted so far are 21% and 12% respectively. The Navodaya Vidyalayas aim to provide opportunities to the talented children to develop their full potential and to promote national integration. Education in these schools is free for all students. It is proposed to open such schools in each district in the country. 342 Navodaya Vidyalayas covering 24 States and 6 Union Territories have been set up till 31st January 1994.

3.6 Secondary Education

The Secondary Education which serves as a bridge between primary and higher education is expected to prepare young persons between the age group 14-18 in the world of work and entry into higher education. The children population at the secondary and senior secondary level, as projected in 1996-97 by NSSO has been estimated at 966 lakhs.

There are over one lakh secondary/higher schools and two lakhs upper primary schools in the country. In spite of the rapid increase in the number of schools, there are still unserved areas in the country where there is no secondary/higher school for 10 to 20 kms.

Against this population, the enrolment figures of the 1997-98 shows that only 270 lakhs are attending schools. Thus, two-third of the eligible population remains out of the school system. To accommodate the children in schools at the secondary level, we have at present 1.10 lakh institutions (1998-99). With the emphasis on universalisation of elementary education, the enrolment is bound to increase and once this universalisation takes place, we may require more than two lakhs institutions at the secondary level to accommodate them.

There are several systems of education at the secondary level. Each state has its own board of secondary education. In addition, there are the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and Indian Council for Secondary Education (ICSE).

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) was set up in its present form in 1952 with an objective to promote national integration to provide uniform school education in the country, cutting across state borders and linguistic barriers. CBSE has affiliated schools all over the country and even abroad. CBSE has also set up an Open School in 1979 for propagation of distance education in the country.

The National Council of Educational Research & Training (NCERT) was established in 1961 to assist and advise the Ministry of Education and Culture in implementing policies and programmes in the field of education. The Council, with the objective of bringing about national integration in education, has over the years revised secondary level syllabi and textbooks in collaboration with the CBSE. It also conducts national surveys of teacher education every five years and organises training for school teachers.

3.7 Higher Education

India has one of the largest 'Higher Education Systems' in the world. It has 237 Universities, 10600 Colleges, 41 Deemed universities, 70.78 lakh students 3.31 lakh teachers.

There are several organisations involved in the field of higher education system in the country. They include:

University Grants Commission (UGC) is responsible for co-ordination, determination and maintenance of standards and release of grants.

Professional Councils are responsible for recognition of courses, promotion of professional institutions and providing grants to undergraduate programmes and various awards. The statutory professional councils are:

All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)

Distance Education Council (DEC)

Indian Council for Agriculture Research (ICAR)

Bar Council of India (BCI),

National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)

Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI)

Medical Council of India (MCI),

Pharmacy Council of India (PCI)

Indian Nursing Council (INC)

Dentist Council of India (DCI)

Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH)

Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM)

The central government is responsible for major policy relating to higher education in the country. It provides grants to the UGC and establishes central universities in the country. The Central Government is also responsible for declaration of Educational Institutions as 'Deemed to be University' on the recommendation of the UGC.

Presently there are sixteen central universities in the country. In pursuance of the Mizoram Accord, another Central University in the State of Mizoram is planned. There are 37 Institutions which have been declared as Deemed to be Universities by the Govt. of India as per Section 3 of the UGC Act, 1956.

State governments are responsible for establishment of State Universities and colleges, and provide plan grants for their development and non-plan grants for their maintenance. The co-ordination and co-operation between the Union and the States is brought about in the field of education through the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE).

Education is on the 'Concurrent list' subject to Entry 66 in the Union List of the Constitution. This gives exclusive Legislative Power to the Central Govt. for co-ordination and determination of standards in Institutions of higher education or research and scientific and technical institutions.

3.8 Professional Education

Professional education would cover engineering and technical education, medical education, management, financial and law courses. Professional education has great potential for adding value to products and service for contributing to the national economy and improving the quality of life of the people.

The Indian technical education system is accorded a great deal of respect based on the alumni who have been setting trail-blazing paths in the developing countries. The large number of Indians who are being sought after by developed countries and large multinationals in various spheres such as information technology, financial services, marketing, medicine etc. is testimony of the innate strength of our technical education system. There is however a view that this is a reflection of the innate ability of Indian brainpower and has little to do with the education system. We need to rejuvenate the system by modernisation and removal of obsolescence of the curriculum.

A large number of inventions and discoveries all over the world have been the result of research initiatives in educational institutions. However, India is an exception to this. There is a felt need to foster a strong culture of research with much stronger linkages with the industry and societal needs.

The colleges and universities have largely bypassed the rural sector, except a few universities designated as rural universities. India is still a largely rural nation. It is the duty of the education system to disseminate knowledge to the entire nation. The urban-centric approach has left a large population of the country untouched. These institutions should utilise the reach of the latest medium and also spearhead the transfer of technology to the rural sector.

3.9 Adult Education

The relationship between adult education and the basic education process is one of interdependence. Recognising the vital role of adult education in the social development of the country, many policies and policy provisions have reflected the Government's concern and commitment for promotion of adult education. Since independence, the Government has been making serious efforts to achieve 100% literacy but it has remained an elusive goal, due to several factors, such as economic constraints, unchecked growth population, lack of community participation, lack of awareness etc.

The literacy rate at present is 62% against the population growth rate of 2 %. Various programs have been launched in the country to enhance literacy rate through six months programme and basic education. Simultaneously efforts are being made to support adult illiterates with daily life skills and knowledge.

The horizon of adult education has widely expanded in the national scenario during the last two decades. Of the various factors which have influenced its development, the launching of the National Adult Education Programme (NAEP) in 1978 and the National Literacy Mission (NLM) in 1988 have been greatly responsible for catapulting adult education into a national programme of high priority and prominence besides ensuring it committed policy support and liberal grants from the Government of India.

Today, several types of adult education activities viz.; Total Literacy Campaigns (TLC), post literacy and continuing education programs and experimental projects like Mahila Samakhya are being implemented in different parts of India by official agencies, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO) and educational institutions. The operationalisation of these diverse programs have not only generated a variety of professional literature ranging from literacy primers, post literacy materials, training manuals, evaluation reports, research studies and innumerable articles but also led to the expansion of training programs.

The systematic strategies evolved by the NLM towards developing the administrative and academic infrastructure at national, state and district levels has been duly supported by the University Grants Commission's (UGC). UGC has established 92 University Departments of Adult Continuing Education, which has also played an important role in strengthening the professional base of adult education in the country.

 

Although literacy levels are low, there has been progress in improving attainment for both sexes in India over the last several decades. In 1981, 70% of women and 43% of men were illiterate. By 1997 this figure had come down to 50% for women and 27% for men. Thus there has been an increase in the proportion of women who are literate in just about 15 years. Despite the improvements in literacy, there continues to be a large gap between the literacy levels of men and of women.

 

Additionally, there are differences in literacy rate by place of residence, with rates in rural areas lagging behind rates in urban areas. In 1991, the urban female literacy rate was more than twice that of rural rate, 64 and 31 percent respectively. While there have, however, been substantial increase in literacy rates in both urban and rural areas, the gap between the two sectors has not narrowed appreciably.

 

The difference in literacy rates among the states is also extreme. Mizoram has the highest female literacy rate, with 95% of women literate in 1997. The state with the second highest female literacy is Kerala, where nearly 90% of women are literate. On the other hand, there are several states that have literacy rates of less than 40%, including Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, the two most populous states. As with India as a whole, many states have large rural-urban differences in female literacy. In 6 of the 24 states, 25% or less of the women in rural areas are literate. In Rajasthan, less than 12% of rural women are literate.

The Total Literacy Campaigns, constituting the principal strategy for eradication of illiteracy, have been extended to cover 282 districts and the Post Literacy Campaigns to 105 districts. The focus of the campaigns has now shifted to Hindi speaking States having bulk of the illiterate population. A significant event in 1988 was the setting up of a National Literacy Authority to manage the national literacy missions aimed at achieving 80% literacy in the 15-35 age group in the country by 1995. A total of 58.07 million people have been enrolled under various National Literacy Missions as in August,1994.

3.10 Women’s Literacy

It is believed that when you educate a man you educate an individual but when you educate a woman you educate the family. The development of a nation cannot only be assured through the technological and materialistic advances, but also through the quality of life.

The current framework of National Development recognises women as one who can and has played a crucial role in social reforms economic development and also in the political process. Women make the most effective providers of healthcare, non-formal teacher and managers of the local environments. As a wife and mother, she is the most influential member in determining the stability of her family and the development of her children's personality. Hence, the women's development is a pre requisite for the all round development of the society.

Many studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between several developmental indicators and level of literacy of the population. Such correlation is particularly strong with the level of female education. It is found that the relation between the age of marriage of a girl and her achievement in education is positive. On the other hand infant mortality rate, birth rate and total fertility rate are negatively correlated. The lower the educational level of the mother, the more number of children born to her and greater is the risk of reproductive mortality/ morbidity. In today's technological worlds education, especially for women is much more important for reduced population growth.

 

Literacy levels are highly correlated with the health status of the population. Kerala has the lowest infant mortality rates and the highest life expectancies of all the states. Conversely, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar have some of the lowest life expectancies found in India. A woman's lack of education also has a negative impact on the health and well-being of her children. Recent surveys have found that infant mortality was inversely related to a mother's educational level. Also, children of illiterate mothers are twice as likely to be undernourished or stunted as compared to children whose mothers have completed at least high school.

Of the literate women in India, 59% have only a primary education or less. This level of education may not be sufficient to meaningfully improve the status of these women. Only 41% of the literate population, or 13% of all Indian women, have more than a primary education.

 

3.11 Summary

To sum up, India’s education system is highly skewed. India has excellent examples of institutions at all levels of education to demonstrate its capability. Some higher education institutions like IITs and IIMs have earned international acclaim.

But below this elite crust there is not much to speak of and the road ahead is challenging.

 

 

Table 3.1

NUMBER OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS – ALL INDIA

Type

1961

1971

1981

1986

1991

1996

1997

1998

Pre-Primary schools

1909

4174

10281

13951

15877

38510

38553

41788

Primary/Junior basic schools

330399

408378

494503

528872

560935

590421

598354

610763

Middle/Senior basic schools

49663

90621

118555

134846

151456

171216

176772

185506

Higher Secondary schools

17257

36738

51006

65837

79796

94648

98172

102721

Universities/deemed/Institution of National Importance

45

100

132

149

184

226

228

229

Degree Standard and above General Educational institutions

967

2285

3421

4067

4862

6569

6759

7199

Degree Standard and above Professional and Technical institutions for;

a) Agri and forestry

b) Engg; Techno. & Architecture

c) Medicine

d) Veterinary Science

e) Teachers training

35

111

133

17

147

59

134

179

22

274

61

171

249

22

341

70

248

288

22

432

80

351

346

27

474

90

422

437

46

633

Na

607

na

na

697

Na

Na

Na

Na

848

Below degree level Prof./Vocational and technical institutions

4145

4401

4808

5381

5739

6513

6542

6561

(Source: Institute of Applied Manpower Research, yearbook 1999)

Table 3.2

TOTAL ENROLMENT IN GENERAL EDUCATION BY LEVEL AND

STATE /UNION TERRITORY (1998)

(in '000s)

State/Union Territory School Level Senior Sec. Graduate Total
  Pre-Primary Primary Middle Secondary      
Andhra Pradesh

97

8,369

2,390

1,061

762

310

12,989

Arunachal Pradesh

36

150

44

19

7

4

260

Assam

23

3,817

1,305

549

296

172

6,162

Bihar

27

10,267

2,493

1,070

417

615

14,889

Delhi

136

1,261

593

744

506

258

3,498

Goa

n.a.

126

77

38

23

13

277

Gujarat

168

5,911

2,205

967

345

348

9,944

Haryana

28

2,096

921

400

188

116

3,749

Himachal Pradesh

1

694

377

172

105

60

1,409

Jammu & Kashmir

38

893

406

165

63

45

1,610

Karnataka

269

6,389

2,415

1,028

940

359

11,400

Kerala

24

2,750

1,837

1,020

281

158

6,070

Madhya Pradesh

177

10,161

3,470

1,244

795

250

16,097

Maharashtra

711

11,880

5,117

2,281

1,161

754

21,904

Manipur

86

237

107

59

10

43

542

Meghalaya

145

303

80

31

14

12

585

Mizoram

2

134

47

24

5

8

220

Nagaland

85

204

68

27

12

6

402

Orissa

30

3,945

1,296

866

432

145

6,714

Punjab

31

2,121

1,000

509

212

160

4,033

Rajasthan

177

6,861

2,027

790

392

170

10,417

Sikkim

24

85

24

7

3

2

145

Tamil Nadu

166

6,814

3594

1,502

714

302

13,092

Tripura

171

441

128

60

23

15

838

Uttar Pradesh

39

13,708

4,773

2,303

936

907

22,666

West Bengal

105

8,908

2,551

943

615

391

13,513

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

5

40

23

12

4

2

86

Chandigarh

14

66

38

20

16

22

176

Dadra and Nagar Haveli

n.a.

25

65

3

1

35

               
Daman and Diu

1

15

7

3

1

1

28

Lakshadweep

1

8

4

2

1

16

Pondicherry

16

104

63

30

13

7

233

INDIA

2,834

108,782

39,487

17,947

9,294

5,654

183,999

Source: Institute of Applied Manpower Research

Table 3.3

COMPARISON OF INDIA WITH OTHER EMERGING COUNTRIES

IN PRIMARY SCHOOL SECTOR

(in percentage)

Country

Net Primary School Enrolment Ratio

(1994-96)

Primary School Attendance Ratio

(1992-97)

Primary School Children Reaching Fifth Grade

(1990-95)

Bangladesh

Not Available (NA)

76

61

Brazil

90

85

71

Egypt

80

78

98

Guatemala

NA

58

NA

India

NA

68

62

Kenya

NA

84

68

Mexico

100

NA

84

Nepal

68

70

52

Nicargua

83

NA

54

Pakistan

NA

66

48

Peru

91

87

NA

Philippines

100

89

70

South Africa

96

NA

65

Tanzania

48

64

83

Thailand

NA

NA

88

Turkey

96

73

89

Source : UNESCO and UNICEF publications

Table 3.4

EXPENDITURE ON PRIMARY EDUCATION

(in percentage)

Country

Public Expenditure on Education as a % of GNP

(1993-97)

Education Spending as a % of Total Government Expenditure

(1990-97)

Primary School Spending as a % of Total Public Education Expenditure

(1993-97)

Bangladesh 2.9 9 45
Brazil 5.5 15 50
Egypt 4.8 15 67
Guatemala 1.7 18 56
India 3.4 12 40
Kenya 6.6 17 59
Mexico 4.9 23 41
Nepal 3.1 14 49
Nicaragua 3.6 12 66
Pakistan 3.0 8 48
Peru 2.9 19 18
Philippines 3.1 15 48
South Africa 7.9 24 42
Tanzania 5.0 11 42
Thailand 4.1 20 50
Turkey 2.2 15 43

Source : UNESCO, UNICEF and UNDP publications

Exhibit 3.1

EDUCATION INDEX FOR SELECT COUNTRIES 1997; TOP INDEX=1

Exhibit 3.2

LITERACY RATES ACROSS STATES (1997)

Source: Institute of Applied Manpower Research

Exhibit 3.3

LITERACY RATES IN INDIA IN THE 20TH CENTURY

Source: Institute of Applied Manpower Research

Exhibit 3.4

PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION (1996)

Source: Human Development Report 1999, United Nations Development Programme

 

 

Exhibit 3.5

STUDENTS BY LEVEL OF EDUCATION AND SEX

Exhibit 3.6

NET ATTENDANCE RATIO BY SEX AND BROAD CLASS GROUP

IN GENERAL EDUCATION (1996)

Source: Institute of Applied Manpower Research

Exhibit 3.7

PERCENTAGE DROPOUT IN DIFFERENT STAGES OF SCHOOL EDUCATION (BOYS)

Source: Institute of Applied Manpower Research

 

 

Exhibit 3.8

PERCENTAGE DROPOUT IN DIFFERENT

STAGES OF SCHOOL EDUCATION (GIRLS)

Source: Institute of Applied Manpower Research

 

Exhibit 3.9

NUMBER OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN INDIA

Source: Institute of Applied Manpower Research

 

Exhibit 3.10

PLAN EXPENDITURE ON DIFFERENT SECTORS OF EDUCATION

 

First Plan

Second Plan

Third Plan

Plan Holiday

Fourth Plan

Fifth Plan

Sixth Plan

Seventh Plan

Plan Holiday

Eighth Plan

Ninth Plan

 

1951-56

1956-61

1961-66

1966-69

1969-74

1974-89

1980-85

1985-90

1990-92

1992-97

1997-2002

Elementary education (percent)

56

35

34

24

30

35

33

37

37

47

58

in million rupees

850

950

2010

750

2390

3170

8360

28490

17290

92010

118248

Secondary education (percent)

13

19

18

16

18

17

21

24

22

18

13

in million rupees

200

510

1030

530

1400

1560

5300

18320

10530

34980

26035

Adult education (percent)

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

9

6

9

9

3

in million rupees

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

2240

4700

4160

18480

6304

Higher education (percent)

9

18

15

24

25

22

22

16

12

8

12

in million rupees

140

480

870

770

1950

2050

5590

12010

5880

15160

25000

Others (percent)

9

10

12

11

14

14

4

3

2

4

2

in million rupees

140

300

730

370

1060

1060

1080

1980

1180

7510

4314

Technical Education (percent)

13

18

21

25

13

12

11

14

17

14

12

in million rupees

200

490

1250

810

1060

1070

2730

10830

8230

27860

23735

Total (percent)

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

in million rupees

1530

2730

5890

3230

7860

8910

25300

76330

47270

196000

203636

 

 

 

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